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2014-Volume 8, Number 1

作者: 文章来源:本站原创 更新时间:2014年08月25日

Journal of Modern Chinese History

VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 JUNE 2014


 

CONTENTS

 

Articles

Joseph Levenson and the possibility for a dialogic history

Madeleine Yue DONG and Ping ZHANG

 

Echoes of tradition: Liang Qichao’s reflections on the Italian Risorgimento and the construction of Chinese nationalism

Yi LI

 

Confronting modernization: rethinking Changsha’s rice riot of 1910

James J. HUDSON

 

The Street Corps of Changsha around 1920

HE Wenping

 

The San-Min Doctrine and the early legislation of the Nanjing government

HE Yuan

 

The development of party rule in the judiciary: personnel changes and political transformation of the Nanjing government’s judicial center, 1927–1937

LI Zaiquan

 

Commentary

A synopsis of the symposium on “civil organizations and the state in modern China”

ZHENG Chenglin and YAN Peng

 

 

Joseph Levenson and the possibility for a dialogic history

 

Madeleine Yue DONG

University of Washington, Seattle

 

Ping ZHANG

Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv

 

In contrast to the criticism that his work represents a Euro-centric view of China, we argue that Joseph Levenson’s understanding of China involves a third dimension – Judaism – at the level of his historical perspective and methodology. Built on in-depth analysis of Levenson’s work, in particular his Confucian China and Its Modern Fate, as well as his unfinished yet profound writings on Judaism and Jewish history, we find that his understanding of Jewish tradition plays a crucial role in his analysis of the history of modern China. We argue that what Levenson practiced was a historical methodology that we name “dialogic history.” We believe that dialogic history provides us a potential answer to the question of how we can understand another culture without being imperialists, essentialists, or Orientalists. Dialogic history is also history in action because when this kind of dialogue is conducted, a new space can be created in which history is no longer a one-sided monologue.

 

Keywords: Joseph R. Levenson; dialogic history; Confucian China and Its Modern Fate; tradition; modernity; comparative history; Judaism

 

 

Echoes of tradition: Liang Qichao’s reflections on the Italian Risorgimento and the construction of Chinese nationalism

 

Yi LI

Tacoma Community College, Tacoma, Washington

 

This paper examines how Liang Qichao viewed the Italian Risorgimento, with the focus on his reflections on its meanings in the historical contexts of Chinese politics and tradition. It will identify and analyze the many forces and ideas that influenced Liang as he formulated his reflections, especially the timing around the turn of the twentieth century and the discourses of nascent nationalism in Japan where Liang lived in exile. The way Liang created – or recreated – the Italian story demonstrated that the Chinese had finally begun to realize a crucial point about the building of a modern nation. While Britain, the United States, and France were able to build a modern nation by starting from the grass roots and more closely observing Enlightenment ideals, China did not have the luxury or the time to follow the same path. In the age of high imperialism, the weak would simply be weeded out quickly. Without national salvation, there could be no modern nation. National salvation, as exemplified by the Risorgimento, involved maintaining and glorifying the country’s own traditions and core values, which would in turn unify different social segments. Liang and his fellow reformers realized the importance of having simultaneously a national cause, a single political party, and a single leader, instead of having to take separate steps toward awakening. Liang’s awakening paved the way for the unfolding of the great Chinese revolutions of the twentieth century, led first by the Kuomintang and then by the Communists. Following Liang’s track of thinking, they both strived to build – or rebuild – a political centralism.

 

Keywords: Liang Qichao; Italian Risorgimento; modern nationalism; reform; revolution

 

 

Confronting modernization: rethinking Changsha’s rice riot of 1910

 

James J. HUDSON

Department of History, University of Texas at Austin

 

By analyzing the role of urban commoners who participated in Changsha’s rice riot of April 1910, we can better understand how the city’s folk traditions and unique urban culture contributed to the intense climate that characterized state/society relations during the late Qing dynasty. Oral history interviews conducted by Liu Duping during the 1970s mainly describe the attack on the government yamen, an attack carried out and led by local carpenters. After reading some of these accounts we can also appreciate how the rioters were not simply an unruly mob incited by local gentry. By attacking a specific government compound and symbols of state authority, in some ways local carpenters expressed their own justification for rioting. While the role of Ye Dehui and other gentry in helping lead the rioters should not be discounted, such characters also need to be understood not simply as conservative hardliners, but within the broader context of late Qing intellectuals.

 

Keywords: rice riot; yamen; oral history; Changsha; Ye Dehui

 

 

The Street Corps of Changsha around 1920

 

HE Wenping

Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou

 

The Changsha Street Corps originated in the local militia during the period of the Taiping Rebellion, and it played an important part in Changsha’s urban social management at the grassroots level. However, the role and influence of the street corps underwent changes during the process of modernization and the building of the modern nation–state. By 1920, although the street corps of Changsha still worked as the agent of the state at the grassroots level, its autonomy had been curtailed, and its social influence weakened. In the new social environment, even the maintenance of neighborhood interests became a challenge for the street corps. This article illustrates the readjustments in geopolitical and industrial relations during the process of urban modernization. It also illustrates how a new form of state power, namely the police, infiltrated the social management system, affected the traditional social structure, and complicated the interaction between modern state and society.

 

Keywords: early Republican period; Changsha; street corps; urban grassroots society; local state building; local elite

 

 

The San-Min Doctrine and the early legislation of the Nanjing government

 

HE Yuan

Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing

 

Shortly after the Nanjing Nationalist government was established, Hu Hanmin and others rejected the existing legal system and proposed instead the San-Min Doctrine legislative principles, which they called society oriented. These principles were derived from Sun Yat-sen’s San-Min Doctrine. A direct manifestation of these legislativeprinciples was the Guomindang’s one-party dictatorship under the system of political tutelage. As the legal system developed during the early period of the Nanjing government, a number of laws were designed to restrain capital and equalize landownership. In his legislative principles, Hu Hanmin understood “obligations centered” to mean “society centered.” When his society-centered principle was applied in laws, the resulting legislation appeared authoritarian in that the state, the nation, and society had the first priority. Therefore, the nature of the political tutelage based on this legislation was closer to feudalism than to modern capitalism.

 

Keywords: society-centered legislative principle; San-Min Doctrine; Hu Hanmin

 

 

The development of party rule in the judiciary: personnel changes and political transformation of the Nanjing government’s judicial center, 1927–1937

 

LI Zaiquan

Institute of Modern Chinese History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing

 

After the establishment of the Nanjing Nationalist government in 1927, the Guomindang (GMD) gradually founded a national regime and started to implement the principle of “governing the nation by the party.” But the party-rule was not implemented immediately and effectively. In the early years of the Nationalist government, its judicial branch mostly hired former Beiyang judicial officials, who generally pursued the ideals of judicial independence and politics transcending party lines, ideals established in the Beiyang period. In 1932, when JuZheng became the president of the Judicial Yuan, founding members of the GMD began to replace the Beiyang officials in the judicial center. This personnel change was completed around 1935. Meanwhile, due to national crisis and the GMD’s concern that the judicial status quo did not meet its political needs, the GMD began to emphasize the political nature of the judiciary and to advocate the party-ization of the judiciary. Consequently, eight years after the founding of the Nanjing Nationalist government, GMD party members began to obtain de facto control of the judicial center, symbolizing the completion of the shift from Beiyang judicial practices to GMD party-rule in the judiciary. Nevertheless, during the following years, the GMD failed to penetrate, dominate, and integrate the middle and lower levels of the judicial system, where the judicial ideals and personnel structures still strongly retained their Beiyang legacy.

 

Keywords: Guomindang; Nationalist government; governing the nation by party; judicial independence; party-ization of the judiciary



下一篇:2013-Volume 7, Number 2

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