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Modern Chinese History Studies【Font:Small Big

No.1 (2015) Abstract

Author:       Update Time:2015年06月02日

Essays Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Marxist Historian Liu Danian

 

Opinions on Liu Danian’s Ideas about Historiography                 Zhang Haipeng ()

 

The Contemporary Value of Liu Danian’s Ideas about Historiography       Huang Renguo ()

 

Keeping Watch: On the Battlefield of Marxist Historiography Studies—The Case of On Objects of  

    Historical Studies by Liu Danian                             Zhang Guangzhi ()

Seeking Truth, the Inherent Quality of a Scholar—Recalling Comrade Danian and the Studies of China’s War of Resistance against Japan                             Wang Jianlang ()     

 

The Academic Value of On Modern Classical Studies by Liu Danian        Li Jian, Fu Yongju ()

 

The Academic Contributions of On Kangxi by Liu Danian and the Inspiration It Provided to Qing History Studies                                                    Cheng Qichun () 

 

Liu Danian and Academic Organization Work                    Zhao Qingyun ()

 

The Legal Nature of The Articles of Favorable Treatment of the Great Qing Emperor after His Abdication and Responsibilities in the Case of a Breach—An Analysis Based on the Qing Court’s Change in the Agreement Forced by the Regency Cabinet after the 1924 Beijing Coup

                                                  Yang Tianhong ()

After the Beijing coup of 1924 sparked controversies between Hu Shi and the Regency Cabinet and its supporters over the quality of The Articles of Favorable Treatment of the Great Qing Emperor after His Abdication, the Regency Cabinet forced the Qing court to change the agreement, which created many unresolved mysteries in legal history. Analysis of historical facts and legal principles tells us that The Articles was a bilateral legal and political agreement between the Republican government and the Qing court. It was not – contrary to the arguments of one faction at the time and many scholars since – just a one-sided gift from the Republican government to the abdicated Qing emperor that could be revised unilaterally. As to the implementation of the agreement, the Qing court did frequently violate it, but the articles of the agreement were also vague and lent themselves to different understandings. In addition, the Republican government that criticized the Qing court for breaking the agreement also owed money in violation of the agreement for a long time. As for the revision of the articles, in addition to the problems raised by the Regency Cabinet – such as that the monarch returned to the throne must bear criminal responsibility and that the Qing court did not keep its promise to move out of the court – the revision formalities themselves also became a challenge. Basically speaking, under the premise that – because the Regency Cabinet did not dare to acknowledge that its acts were “revolutionary” or contained any “revolutionary” meanings – the persons concerned would recognize the problems in a legal framework, the establishment of the Cabinet was not to be regarded as legitimate. Because this behavior did not have a legitimate legal basis, the revision of the Articles naturally cannot be considered to be legal.

 

Revolutionary Organizations and Secret Societies in the Late Qing Period: Centered on the Armed

    Uprisings of the Tongmenghui                                  Lee Pyongsoo ()

   

Through analysis of six armed uprisings of the Tongmenghui (Chinese United League), this article re-examines the relationship between revolutionary organizations and secret societies. The perspective of this article differs from the “Sun Yat-sen-centered historical viewpoint” or the “revolution-centered historical viewpoint.” Based on this position, the author first argues that the phenomena traditionally referred to as “simultaneous uprisings” and the “leadership body of the Guangdong-Guizhou-Yunnan Uprising” actually did not exist. Second, the author argues that the organizations that promoted uprisings can generally be divided into four categories: “design organizations,” including those constructed by Sun Yat-sen and other members of the Tongmenghui; “implementation organizations,” composed of the leaders of the Heaven and Earth Society and other secret societies; “support organizations,” constructed by overseas Chinese and Japanese sponsors; and “auxiliary organizations,” composed of the Qing generals and their troops. Among these, design organizations should take basic responsibility for the failure of those uprisings. Finally, the structures of these armed uprisings were basically similar to that of the Xingzhonghui (the Tongmenghui’s predecessor); they were all co-operative relations between the Tongmenghui and secret societies, formed with leaders of the Heaven and Earth Society and other secret societies as the mediums. While cooperating like this, the secret societies also had the primary, conscious goal of resisting the Qing dynasty.

 

The Reform of the Imperial Examination System and the Origin of the Edict Ordering the Establishment of the Jinshi Bureau                                          Han Ce ()

    As one of important measures of the New Policies in the late Qing period, the reform of the Imperial Examination System was tangled and complicated. The issuance of an edict to establish the Jinshi Bureau in the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of Emperor Guangxu’s reign (1902) continued the path of reform in the Imperial Academy before and after 1900. It used accelerated educational methods, cultivated talented persons who had already been selected by the Imperial Examination System, realized an important transformation in the Hanlin Bachelor system, and was closely connected with the preparatory work for the Official College of Peking Imperial University. In the early discussions of the Political Affairs Department, the opinions of officials about establishing the Bureau were different, reflecting tangled and complicated disputes between the Imperial Academy and Peking Imperial University, as well as between the Imperial Examination System and schools. It was finally established with the help of forceful promotion from Qu Hongji, Rong Qing and other high officials. The establishment of the Jinshi Bureau was an important reform of the Imperial Academy and of the cultivation and appointment of new Jinshi. It was a key measure at the highest level to adjust the relations between the Imperial Examination System and schools. It matched the new imperial examination regulations of 1900 and was an important component of the transformation of the Imperial Examination System. Further, it also was intended to profoundly constrain the Imperial Examination System and promote schools. It therefore indicated the trends of change in this period.

 

The Withdrawal of Embassy Personnel and Deployment of Intelligence Agents at the Japanese Embassy and Consulates in China after the Outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894    

                                                Dai Dongyang ()

In the month before the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, while using China’s obstruction of its attempts to reform the Korean government as an excuse to force Korea to deny its tributary relationship with China, Japan began to secretly pursue a policy of entrusting the USA – which was maintaining a policy of neutrality – with protecting its interests in China after the withdrawal of consular personnel. Though it was early for Japan to prepare for the withdrawal of embassy personnel, after the outbreak of the war, Japan issued the order to withdraw embassy personnel only after the Chinese embassy in Japan sent a note. Japan only prepared to withdraw its personnel from the embassy in Beijing and the consulates north of the Yangtze River, trying to preserve its Consulate-General in Shanghai and the Japanese forces under its control in the extensive regions south of the Yangtze River. Later, because of the Qing government’s forceful demands and the Chinese public’s fury, and upon the urging of the extremely concerned American embassy and consulates, Japan was forced to withdraw all of its consular personnel, along with other Japanese citizens in the important treaty ports. However, Japan still used clever methods to deploy spies in Beijing, Tianjin, Yantai, and Shanghai, through which it gathered extensive military and political information about Weihaiwei, Tianjin, Niuzhuang, Shanhaiguan, the Yalu River, and other areas to facilitate Japanese military operations. With the resolution of three important spy cases, the Americans had to clarify the scope and nature of their “protection,” so the Japanese intelligence agents hiding in various regions successively returned to Japan and continued to promote the war. Japan’s withdrawal of consular personnel was therefore essentially a component of its preparation for war. China generally managed the process of Japan’s withdrawal of consular personnel in a reasonable manner according to international law.

 

When Western Historiography Encountered the Chinese Classics: James

    Legge’s The Chinese Classics—The Ch’un Ts’ew and the Studies of The Spring and Autumn  

    Annuals in the Qing Dynasty                          Luo Junfeng ()

 

The Spread and Influence of John Maynard Keynes’s Economic Thoughts in Modern China 

                                                    Song Lizhil, Zou Jinwen ()

 

Modernity and the Identity of the Word “She”—Reading The Cultural History of “She”   

                                                     Yang Jianli ()

    The Cultural History of “She” is an enlightening monograph that combines the methods of “new cultural history” and traditional historiography. It performs its analysis by combining modernity’s reimagining of the “she” and social identity. The author argues that the key factor is not “Western-ness,” but rather that it is Chinese people’s own “appeals to modernity.” However, “modernity” cannot be completely separated from “Western-ness;” the boundaries between them remain under discussion. Even though the concepts of “gender equality” and other modern concepts used in controversies about the word “she” are not sufficient, we still should not use contemporary standards to judge and evaluate; modern concepts have no fixed pattern. Now that the concept of “she” is a product of interactions between China and the West, between tradition and modernity, it is perhaps more suitable for us to analyze the causes and effects of this concept by regarding modernity as defined by a special period in the relationship between China and the West or between tradition and modernity.

 

The Role of Wu Zhihui in the Case of Li Jishen’s Imprisonment in Tang Shan Mountain

                                                        Shen Chengfei ()

 

The Development of and Problems with Studies of Warnings to a Prosperous Age—A Summary of “The Academic Conference on Commemorating the 15th Anniversary of Macao’s Recovery and the 

120th Anniversary of the Publication of Zheng Guanying’s Warnings to a Prosperous Age” 

                                                   Zhang Zhongpeng () 



Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

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