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Modern Chinese History Studies【Font:Small Big

No.3 (2015) Abstract

Author:       Update Time:2015年06月02日

 

Hostility: Tunnels and Tunnel Combat in the Central Area of Hebei Province during the War of Resistance against Japan                                  Huang Daoxuan ()

During the War of Resistance against Japan, the Chinese Communist Party developed many tactics to fight the Japanese army, among which “tunnel combat” was the most well-known. The central Hebei area was the birthplace and center of tunnel combat; the style of combat here therefore merits attention. Tunnels themselves are a facility for passive defense; tunnel combat must combine mine warfare, guerilla warfare, ambush warfare, village warfare, and anti-siege warfare in order to operate effectively. This kind of systematic project originated in the CCP’s pursuit of high-efficiency organization and mobilization systems, and highlighted the characteristics of the CCP’s political and military operations. Meanwhile, both digging the tunnels and pursuing tunnel combat were dependent on the willingness of the people. The general hostility toward the Japanese among the Chinese people was a mortal blow to Japan’s control in China, and it was also the foundation on which the CCP was able to pursue tunnel combat.

 

A “New Party” or “Rebels”—The Evolution of the Members of the “Kang [Youwei] Party” during the Reform Movement of 1898                               Jia Xiaoye ()

The “Kang Party” was an important concept during the Reform Movement of 1898. Identifying members of the party and the standards for judging them went through complicated changes before and after the coup. From the perspective of political reform, the “Kang Party” originally referred to Kang Youwei and his students; at the time, people identified members of the “Kang Party” on the basis of the theories of reform put forward by Kang Youwei and his students (referred to at the time as “Kang Learning” or “Kang Teaching”) and the faction they built on the basis of “Gongyang Learning.” Later, as the influence of this group increased, the scope of people considered to be part of the “Kang Party” gradually expanded to include supporters of Kang and his students. After the coup of 1898, the standards for identifying members of the “Kang Party” changed again. In the early period of the coup, the Qing court used “conspiracy” as the main basis on which to judge whether someone was a member of the “Kang Party.” Later, due to the interaction of several factors, the “Kang Party” that had been identified by the Qing court actually became mixed with the “New Party.” The evolution of the membership of the “Kang Party” had a complex relationship with the changing political situation in 1898.

 

Zhang Yinhuan and the Renewed Loan from England and Germany        

                                                    Mang Zhongwen ()

In the process of the third major loan to China after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, Qing officials were unable to cooperate in making policy, and the struggle between Zhang Yinhuan and Li Hongzhang for the right to manage the loan ran through the entire process. Weng Tonghe was caught between then and did not know what to do, so an opportunity was missed. After the Jiaozhou Bay Incident and the Lüda Incident, only because of Robert Hart’s intervention where they able to hurriedly conclude an agreement for a renewed loan with the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and Deutsche Asiatische Bank. As for loan guarantees, General-Governor of Hunan and Hubei Zhang Zhidong forcefully opposed the use of the likin tax as security and struggled with the central government over resources. Exploring the story of the renewed loan from England and Germany from the perspective of Zhang Yinhuan’s activities can shed light on many aspects of the Qing court’s domestic politics and diplomatic activities after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, and it also helps us understand some of the indirect causes of the transformation of the political situation in 1898.

 

 

A Study of the Division and Administration of Inner and Outer Seas in the Qing Dynasty—With a Comparison with the Western Concept of Territorial Waters              Wang Hongbin ()

    The Qing government divided the waters approaching the continental coasts and the island coasts into three parts. The first part was the “inner seas.” This area was marked by some small islands because it was close to continental or island coasts, so normally the coastal prefectures and counties co-adminstered it with naval officials. The second part was the “big seas,” including “deep-water” or “black-water” seas which were immense and boundless. This part was not China’s territory, and it is similar to the modern “high seas.” The third part consisted of the seas between the first two parts; the Qing called them the “outer seas.” The boundary of this part was generally marked by the reefs furthest from Chinese coastal territories or islands. Because this part of the seas exceeded the ability of civil officials to administer, the Qing government primarily sent the navy to patrol them.

 

 

The Origin and Evolution of Peking University’s Law Department             Yang Rui ()

China’s “law department” in the modern sense was introduced from Japan and experienced a long, complicated process of development and evolution until it was finalized in the 1930s, following the issuance of several government regulations. From texts to the construction of systems, the teaching system of the law department of the Imperial University of Peking in the late Qing period directly followed Japan, while indirectly taking Germany as an example. Because of the psychological constraints of local culture, it also experienced a change from a “politics department” to a “politics and law department.” At the beginning of the Republican era, the Continental law system composed of law, politics, and economics was established. At the time of the May Fourth New Cultural Movement, the Law Department of Dongwu University was established, and the law department of Peking University was replaced by “the Department of Law,” which alone taught law. The school of English and American common law became more and more powerful, rewriting the system of Continental law, which had long dominated legal circles. Soon after that, because graduates of the French-Chinese University controlled the central educational administration, the French School began to dominate, establishing a sociological orientation for the system of the law college. After the Nationalist government unified China, against the background of “modeling the judiciary in the image of the party,” the Americanization of the university system proceeded in coordination with the Continental approach to legal education.

 

Revisiting the Question of “She” and the Understanding of “Modernity”—A Reply to Doctor Yang Jianli                                    Huang Xingtao ()

 

A Dialogue between Small History and Grand History: The Methodology of The Teahouse: Small Business, Everyday Culture, and Public Politics in Chengdu, 1900-1950 by Wang Di

                                                  Li Jinzheng ()

 

A Summary of the Studies on the History of the 1911 Revolution since the Establishment of the People’s Republic of China                                  Cui Zhihai ()

 

 

Textual Research into Shanghai Daotai Wu Chien-chang’s Life Experience

                                                          Gong Fengfei ()

 

 



Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

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