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Studies of China’s Resistance War Against Japan【Font:Small Big

No.1 (2015) Abstract

Author:       Update Time:2015年06月08日

 
Struggles between Yan Xishan and the Chinese Communist Party in Rural Areas of Shanxi Province—Focusing on the Change of the Relations between Them in Southeast Shanxi before and after the Outbreak of China’s Resistance War against Japanese Aggression
Yang Kuisong
 
    Both Yan Xishan and the CCP paid high attention to rural problem. Yan independently controlled and administered Shanxi for twenty years long. This perhaps had relations with his care of the problem of rural transformation. However, Yan’s rule was still built on basis of the traditional social structure, therefore, the most effective way to defense the Communist movement factually was to prohibit the CCP to carry out public and legal activities in Shanxi. After the Anti-Japanese War broke out, the CCP entered by both public and secret ways into Shanxi, and got involved publically and legally in works of mass mobilization, mass organization and mass militarization. This naturally resulted in conflicts and confrontations between the CCP and the traditional old forces. From any angle, the CCP needed to win over Yan Xishan to maintain a neutral position between the new and the old forces, including in the Guomindang and the CCP relations. Therefore, the CCP did not actively and initiatively take any actions to destroy the policy of keeping the united front relations with Yan, but tried more than once to repair the relations between two sides. However, because their ideas and viewpoints, and experiences and feelings were different, because the understandings of the personnel of both sides at different levels to policies and strategies were different, in particular because the starting points for both sides to cooperate were different, in the process of pursuing of maximizing their own interests the relations between them in the end moved to rupture.   
 
 
 
A Study of Grain Problem in the Shaaxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region during the Anti-Japanese War
Huang Zhenglin
 
    Though the environment of grain production of the Shaaxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region located in the Loess Plateau is not very good, the CCP and the government of the Border Region, in order to bridge over the most difficult period in the Anti-Japanese War, made great endeavors to increase grain production and grain supplies: (1) They widely mobilized peasants and organized labor force to increase grain output through reclaiming wasteland and enlarging farmland: (2) They regulated and adjusted the system of grain administration and supply, and to the maximum extent saved grain to ensure grain supply; (3) They prohibited exporting of grain from the Region and usage of grain to make alcohol, with the aim of decreasing grain consumption. All of these measures obtained a good achievement. Firstly, the cultivated area and grain output in the Region were greatly increased. Secondly, the problem of competing for food with peasants was resolved through adjusting political and economic policies, and through building more reasonable grain system to lighten the burden on peasants. The successful solution of grain problem was one of the most important factors for the Region to bridge over the most difficult period during the Anti-Japanese War. Therefore, the factor of grain production should not be neglected in discussing on the problem of self-sufficiency of the Region. 
 
 
 
Portrait Politics: The Portraits of the Chinese Communist Party’s Leaders in Festivals, 1937-1949
Li Qunquan
 
    With the development of the modern Chinese political modernization, the portraits of leaders with internal political property became political public instrument controlled by political forces. From 1937 to 1949, considering the change of political living environment, the CCP used portraits of leaders to construct power symbols of the revolutionary government in festivals in base areas and liberated areas. In order to form the legitimacy of the political government, the CCP timely introduced portraits of Sun Yat-sen and other leaders which originally belonged to the national discourse, and frequently used them in festivals in base areas. Meanwhile, in order to publicize the independence of the political power, the CCP deliberately underlined portraits of its leaders in festivals, and in the end used Mao Zedong’s portrait in various political and social activities as the supreme symbol of the revolutionary government. 
 
 
 
Not “Business as Usual”: The China Policies of Denmark and Sweden 1937-1945: A Comparison
Peter Harmsen
 
    In the early period of the Anti-Japanese War, although the envoys of Denmark and Sweden in China, as almost all other foreign diplomats, did not move to the interior of China with the Nationalist government together, the two countries expected to maintain the status quo for their relations with China, and carried on “business as usual”. However, Denmark was occupied by Germany in 1940. Under the pressure of the Axis powers, Denmark was forced to sever its diplomatic relations with the Nationalist government in Chongqing and turned to recognize the Wang Jingwei puppet regime.  With the endeavors of the Chongqing government, former Danish ambassador to Washington Henrik Kauffmann was appointed to be representative of “Free Denmark” in Chongqing. Therefore, from 1942 to summer of 1945, there were two Danish envoys in China. Sweden had always kept independence during the War. Though Japan frequently asked Sweden to recognize the Wang Jingwei puppet regime and negotiated with it about the abolition of extraterritoriality, Sweden did not comply. On the contrary, Sweden sent a new ambassador to the Nationalist government in Chongqing while letting the former envoy remain in Japan-occupied area, so that Sweden had two senior diplomats at the same time in China. These two starkly different historical processes indicate that external pressure from the Axis powers such as Germany and Japan played key roles for recognition of the Chongqing government or the Wang Jingwei puppet government. 
 
 
 
The Wartime Finance’s Dilemma and Responses:  “Professionalization of the Four Banks” in 1942
Long Yundi
 
 
 
The Industrial Cooperations in Southeast China during the Resistance War against Japanese Aggression
You Haihua
 
 
 
Chiang Kai-shek and the Independence of Outer Mongolia, 1945-1952   
You Shujun
 
    In 1945, under the dual pressure of the USA and the Soviet Union, Chiang Kai-shek was force to accept Yalta Agreement. In view of problems of the Northeast, Xinjiang and the Chinese Communist Party, Chiang agreed to sign The Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, allowing Outer Mongolia to be independent through self-determination. Though the Nationalist government declared Outer Mongolia’s independence, it did not settle the boundary between China and Mongolia, this led Sino-Mongolia relations to be strained. After the outbreak of Beitashan Incident, the Nationalist government turned to deny Outer Mongolia’s independence. It took an anti-Soviet policy and tried to get the USA’s support, but put itself between two fires. The Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union and the confrontation across the Taiwan Strait also affected the foreign relations of the People’s Republic of Mongolia. It was thereby difficult to join the United Nations and became a bargaining counter in diplomatic disputes in the Cold War situation. 
 
 
 
A Preliminary Study of the Nanjing Nationalist Government’s Policies to Halt Japanese People’s Illicit Fishing –Centered on the Sino-Japanese Fishery Negotiations, 1927-1937
Liu Limin



Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

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